Orient campaign medal and Eltrombopag

Louis Franchet D'Esperey, a recipient of the Orient campaign medal

The Orient campaign medal (French: "Médaille commémorative d'Orient") was a French military medal bestowed for participation in the battles against the Central Powers by the Allied Eastern Army between 1915 and 1918.

These battles culminated in the 1918 successful offensive under French general Louis Franchet d'Espèrey in Macedonia knocking Bulgaria out of the war and the overrunning of much of the Balkans.

Contents 1 Award history 2 Award statute 3 Award description 4 Notable recipients (partial list) 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources

Award history

First proposed as a new clasp on the Colonial Medal, and then as a distinct medal in June 1917, it is finally and only on 15 June 1926 that this award will be officially established. The creation of the "1914-1918 war commemorative medal" (French: Médaille commémorative de la guerre 1914–1918) in 1920 and of the 1914-1918 "Interallied Victory Medal" (French: Médaille Interalliée de la Victoire 1914–1918) in 1922 will have placed enough pressure on the French Government to concede, even against the will of its defence minister, the need for official recognition of service in this theatre of operations.

The new medal is officially called the "Orient and Dardanelles' campaign medal" (French: "Médaille Commémorative d'Orient et des Dardanelles"), the intent being for a single medal for both campaigns albeit with different ribbons, but it is actually produced with different reverse inscriptions for the two fronts "ORIENT" or "DARDANELLES" and will only bear the "ORIENT" designation when bestowed for that front. Award statute

The Orient campaign medal is awarded to military and civilian personnel embarked prior to 11 November 1918 for service with the French Army of the Orient; to French personnel having served in the headquarters staff of the commandant of the Allied Eastern Army; to French sailors having served East of the 21st degree of longitude in operations related to those of the Allied Eastern Army.

No minimum time of service is mentioned in the award statute. Award description

The Orient campaign medal is a 30mm in diameter circular medal struck from bronze. The obverse bears the relief image of the "warrior republic" in the form of the left profile of a helmeted woman's bust, the helmet being adorned by a crown of oak leaves. On either side, the relief inscription along the circumference "FRENCH REPUBLIC" (French: RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE).

The reverse, representing both the army and navy, bears the relief image of an infantry rifle crossed with a naval anchor below two military banners and lances surmounted by the relief inscription "ORIENT". On some variants, the relief inscription "HONNEUR ET PATRIE 1915 1918" (HONOUR AND COUNTRY 1915 1918) can be found on one of the banners, other variants lack the anchor.

The medal hangs from a ribbon through a ring passing through the medal's suspension loop. The ring is adorned by a 24mm in diameter bronze laurel wreath and half crescent. The ribbon is 37mm wide and is light blue with a yellow central 7mm wide and 2mm wide stripes 2mm from the edges. Notable recipients (partial list) Maréchal de France Louis Franchet d'Espèrey Commandant Georges Cartier See also Ribbons of the French military and civil awards

Eltrombopag and Orient campaign medal

Eltrombopag (rINN, codenamed SB-497115-GR) is a medication that has been developed for conditions that lead to thrombocytopenia (abnormally low platelet counts). It is a small molecule agonist of the c-mpl (TpoR) receptor, which is the physiological target of the hormone thrombopoietin. Eltrombopag was discovered as a result of research collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Designated an orphan drug in the USA and European Union, it is being manufactured and marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Promacta in the USA and will be marketed as Revolade in the EU. Eltrombopag was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on November 20, 2008. Eltrombopag received FDA breakthrough treatment designation in February 2014 for patients with aplastic anemia for which immunosuppression has not been successful. It has been shown to produce a trilineage hematopoesis in some patients with aplastic anemia, resulting in increased platelet counts, along with red and white blood cell counts. Development

In preclinical studies, the compound was shown to interact selectively with the thrombopoeitin receptor, leading to activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and increased proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes. Animal studies confirmed that administration could increase platelet counts. In 73 healthy volunteers, higher doses of eltrombopag caused larger increases in the number of circulating platelets without tolerability problems. Clinical trials

Eltrombopag has been studied, and shown to be effective, in two major clinical syndromes: idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (in which low platelet counts may be a contraindication for interferon treatment). After 6 weeks of therapy in a phase III trial, eltrombopag 50 mg/day was associated with a significantly higher response rate than placebo in adult patients with chronic ITP.
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