Ackley School District v. Hall and Cornelia BargmannAckley School District v. Hall, 113 U.S. 135 (1885), was a suit to recover principal and interest claimed to be due the defendant on negotiable bonds issued by the plaintiff.Municipal bonds issued under the authority of law for the payment at all events to a named person or order a fixed sum of money at a designated tune therein limited, being endorsed in blank, is a negotiable security. Its negotiability is not affected by a provision of the statute under which it was issued that it should be "payable at the pleasure of the district at any time before due."An act of the Legislature of Iowa entitled "An act to authorize independent school districts to borrow money and issue bonds therefor for the purpose of erecting and completing schoolhouses, legalizing bonds heretofore issued, and making school orders draw six percent interest in certain cases" is not in violation of the provision in the Constitution of that state which declares that "every act shall embrace but one subject and matters properly connected therewith, which subject shall be expressed in the title."By an Act of the General Assembly of the State of Iowa approved April 6, 1868, it is provided that independent school districts shall have power and authority to borrow money for the purpose of erecting and completing school houses by issuing negotiable bonds of the independent district, to run any period not exceeding ten years, drawing a rate of interest not exceeding ten percent, which interest may be paid semiannually, which indebtedness shall be binding and obligatory on the independent school district for the use of which said loan shall have been made."The Independent School District of Ackley, Hardin County, Iowa, promises to pay to Foster Brothers, or order at the Hardin County Bank at Eldora, Iowa, on the first day of May, 1872, five hundred dollars for value received, with interest at the rate of ten percent per annum, said interest payable semiannually, on the first day of May and November in each year thereafter at the Hardin County Bank at Eldora, on the presentation and surrender of the interest coupons hereto attached"This bond is issued by the board of school directors by authority of an election of the voters of said school district held on the 23d day of August, 1869, in conformity with the provisions of chapter 98, acts 12, General Assembly of the State of Iowa.""In testimony whereof the said Independent School District, by the board of directors thereof, have caused the same to be signed by the President and secretary, this first day of November, 1869.""Treasurer of Independent School District, Ackley, Hardin County, Iowa, will pay the holder hereof, on the 1st day of November, 1874 at the Hardin County Bank at Eldora, Iowa, twenty-five dollars, for interest due on school house bond No. 8."The defendant, who is averred to be a citizen of New York, became the holder of eight of these obligations with interest coupons attached, each one being endorsed in blank by Foster Brothers, the original payees. This suit was brought to recover the amount due thereon, without any averment in the pleadings as to the citizenship of the payees. The district made defense upon various grounds. The case was tried by the court without the intervention of a jury, and there was a general finding for the plaintiff, upon which a judgment was entered against the district. To that finding and judgment the defendant excepted (but without preserving, by bill of exceptions, the evidence upon which the court acted), and brought this writ of error.Judgment was affirmed.
Cornelia Bargmann and Ackley School District v. HallCornelia Isabella "Cori" Bargmann (born 1961) is an American neurobiologist. She is known for her work on the behavior in the C. elegans, particularly olfaction in the worm. She has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences and is currently a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at Rockefeller University. For her work, in 2012 she was awarded the $1 million Kavli Prize, and in 2013 the $3 million Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences.Contents 1 Biography 2 Notable papers 3 Awards 4 References 4.1 Footnotes 4.2 Sources 5 External linksBiographyBargmann was born in Virginia and grew up in Athens, Georgia, one of four children, and the daughter of Rolf Bargmann, a statistician and computer scientist at the University of Georgia.She completed undergraduate studies at the University of Georgia in 1981, with a degree in biochemistry. She completed graduate studies in 1987 at M.I.T. in the lab of Robert Weinberg. She examined the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis, and helped identify the role of Ras in bladder cancer. She also did significant work on neu, an oncogene that later lead to significant treatments in breast cancer.Bargmann then completed a postdoc with H. Robert Horvitz at MIT, working on molecular biology mechanisms of neuroscience. She began working on chemosensory behavior in C. elegans, and achieved several breakthroughs, demonstrating, among other things, that nematodes have a sense of smell.Bargmann accepted a faculty position at UCSF, focusing on olfaction at the molecular level. This work led to discoveries of the mechanisms underlying complex behaviors, such as feeding behaviors. The work has continued to lead to a deeper understanding of the brain, sensory abilities, and neuronal development. Bargmann also identified SYG-1, a "matchmaker" molecule—a molecule that directs neurons to form connections with each other during development.In 2004, Bargmann moved to Rockefeller University.Bargmann is married to fellow olfactory scientist and Nobel laureate Richard Axel. Previously, she had been married to Michael J. Finney, who also completed graduate studies at M.I.T. and is now a Director at Sage Science, Inc.For a vivid portrait of Bargmann as a working young scientist, see Natalie Angier's "Natural Obsessions: The Search for the Oncogene."She was featured in the New York Times on June 21, 2011. Notable papers Shen, Kang; Bargmann, Cornelia I. (March 7, 2003). "The immunoglobin superfamily protein SYG-1 determines the location of specific synapses in C. Elegans". Cell 112 (5): 619–630. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00113-2. PMID 12628183. de Bono, Mario; Bargmann, Cornelia I. (September 4, 1998). "Natural variation in a neuropeptide Y receptor homolog modifies social behavior and food response in C. Elegans". Cell 94 (5): 679–689. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81609-8. PMID 9741632. Awards Lucille P. Markey Award (1990–1995) Searle Scholar Award (1992–1995) Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2002) Member of the National Academy of Sciences (2003) Taskago Prize for olfaction research W. Alden Spencer Award for neuroscience research Charles Judson Herick Award for comparative neurology Richard Lounsbery Award (2009) Kavli Prize in neuroscience (2012) Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences (2013) for the genetics of neural circuits and behavior, and synaptic guidepost molecules
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