Emily Hunter and Toyota AR engine

Emily Hunter (born May 20, 1984) is a Canadian activist, author and filmmaker. She is the daughter of the late Robert Hunter, first president of Greenpeace and Bobbi Hunter, co-founder of Greenpeace. She has been a campaigner for nearly a decade on numerous environmental causes, from fighting whaling to climate change. She is known in Canada as a writer for THIS magazine and as environmental correspondent for MTV News.

Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Environmental activism 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Biography Environmental activism

Emily Hunter was born in Vancouver, a daughter of the late Robert Hunter, Greenpeace’s founding president. and co-founder Bobbi Hunter. Her own activism began at 20-years-old when she joined her first environmental campaign with the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society to protect the Galapagos Marine Reserve. She and other crew members were threatened and taken hostage for 1 day by fisherman who demanded further exploitation of the Sea Cucumber fishery. Hunter was the only woman in the group and found the experience of being an eco-warrior on the frontline an exhilarating experience.

Soon after her activism began, her father died 2005. To continue her family’s legacy, Hunter joined the Sea Shepherd campaign in the Antarctic Ocean to stop whaling by Japan, serving as quartermaster and deckhand. In the 2005-2006 Whale Defense campaign, Captain Paul Watson and Emily spread the ashes of her father across an iceberg. In the 2008-2009 campaign called “Operation Musashi,” Hunter was cast as one of the characters in season two of the reality TV-show Whale Wars.

Hunter has taken part in the Canadian Youth Climate Coalition, EarthRoots and the Greenpeace Tar Sands project.

In October 2010, Hunter joined the group 350.org to help coordinate a global day of action on climate change. She was the national campaigner for Canada of the 10/10/10 campaign, coordinating a climate “work party” in every province and territory including a pledge by a Member of Provincial Parliament. One year later she joined DeforestACTION in a campaign to raise awareness about deforestation in Borneo from palm oil plantations. Hunter is working with Cineboxx Film & Television on a documentary film in development about the palm oil issue.

For her work, Hunter has gained a public profile. She was named Top Canadians to Watch Under 30 in Flare Magazine in 2011 and Top 10 Amazing Woman Trying to Save the Planet by AOL’s Lemondrop.com in 2010. Hunter appeared in several documentary films, including At the Edge of the World by Dan Stone (2008), Eco-Pirate: The Story of Paul Watson by Trish Dolman (2011), and Revolution by Rob Stewart (2013), as well as, a TV-documentary called Green Heroes. She has appeared on NPR, Voice of America, CBC News Network, A Current Affairs Australia and others. She was written about in several books, including: The Whale Warriors (2007) by Peter Heller and The Last Whale (2008) by Chris Pash.

She is the author of "The Next Eco-Warriors", published in Canada in 2011.

Her new 2013 project is "Activism 2.0", a study of global green activists. Hunter will be followed by a film crew as she travels around the world documenting the 21st-century tactics of environmental protestors. Campaigns under scrutiny include The Black Fish action against illegal driftnet fishery in the Mediterranean and the 'divestment' movement on North American university campuses. See also Tony Clarke (activist) Mitch Daniels Thomas Homer-Dixon Mike Hudema Nikolai Kudryavtsev Andrew Nikiforuk

Toyota AR engine and Emily Hunter

The AR engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series by Toyota, first introduced in 2008 for the RAV4, and subsequently for the Highlander, Venza, Camry and Scion tC

The AR series uses a die-cast aluminium engine block and aluminium DOHC cylinder head. The engine series shares many of the technologies in the AZ engine, while incorporating new features such as variable valve timing on both intake and exhaust camshafts or dual VVT-i, low friction technologies including an offset crankshaft, roller rockers for the valvetrain, a three-stage variable oil pump, reduced-tension piston rings and auxiliary belt drive. An Acoustic Control Induction System switches the length of the intake tract in two stages, based on rpm and throttle angle, thereby ensuring strong torque across a broad engine speed range. New tumble control valves enhances combustion while the engine is cold, and helps to bring the catalytic converters up to working temperature quickly. The Tumble control valves, along with new 12-hole high atomizing long-nozzle fuel injectors, reduce the amount of fuel adhering to the intake ports and therefore maximize fuel economy and reduce harmful emissions.

The cylinder block is an open-deck, midi-skirt type with cast-in iron liners and a die-cast aluminium lower crankcase and a stamped oil pan. The forged steel crankshaft is fully balanced with eight counterweights and supported by five main bearings. A helical gear pressed in No. 3 counterweight drives twin contra-rotating balance shafts in the shaft housing within the lower crankcase.

The AR engine replaces the AZ engine.

Contents 1 1AR-FE 2 2AR-FE 3 2AR-FXE 4 2AR-FSE 5 8AR-FTS 6 Production 7 See also 8 References

1AR-FE

A 2.7 L version of the AR family, first released in the Venza and Highlander in late 2008.

Applications: Toyota Venza AGV10/15, 185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp)@5800, 247 N·m (182 lbf·ft)@4200 Toyota Highlander ASU40, 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp)@5800, 252 N·m (186 lbf·ft)@4100 Toyota Sienna ASU40, 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp)@5800, 252 N·m (186 lbf·ft)@4100 Lexus RX AGL10, 138 kW (188 PS)@5800, 252 N·m (186 lbf·ft)@4200

2AR-FE

A 2.5 L version of the AR family, first released in the RAV4 in the U.S. and Canada in 2008. This engine also replaced the 2AZ-FE in the U.S. and Canada Camry in early 2009, giving 11% better fuel economy. The engine service mass is 324 lb (147 kg) that includes the oil and coolant fully filled. The engine is used in the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, China, Taiwan, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia.

Applications: Toyota RAV4 (ASA33/38), 181 PS (133 kW; 179 hp)@6000, 233 N·m (172 lbf·ft)@4000 Toyota Camry ASV40 (Base & LE), 171 PS (126 kW; 169 hp)@6000, 226 N·m (167 lbf·ft)@4100 Toyota Camry ASV40 (SE), 181 PS (133 kW; 179 hp)@6000, 232 N·m (171 lbf·ft)@4100 Scion tC (AGT20), 180 hp (130 kW), 173 lb·ft (235 N·m)

2AR-FXE

The 2AR-FXE is an Atkinson cycle variant of the 2AR-FE. It has the same bore and stroke, but the cams and pistons are unique.

The large valve overlap leads to a reduction in cylinder charge and reduced torque and power output, but efficiency is increased. This combination makes the 2AR-FXE suitable for use in hybrid vehicles, where peak torque and power demands can be met by the electric motor and battery.

Maximum output when used in the Camry hybrid is 154 hp with 153 lb·ft of torque which doesn't include the additional power of the electric motor that is used in the Camry Hybrid.

Applications: Toyota Camry Hybrid (AVV50) Toyota Avalon Hybrid Toyota Harrier Hybrid (XU60)

2AR-FSE

The 2AR-FSE is a direct-injected variant of the 2AR-FE. It has the same bore and stroke, but the cylinder head, cams and pistons are unique as well as the fuel management system.

Applications: Lexus IS 300h Toyota Crown(S210) Lexus GS 300h

8AR-FTS

A 2.0L turbocharged direct-injected member the AR family, fitted with VVT-iW it is able to operate in both the Otto and a modified-Atkinson cycle. Debuting in the upcoming Lexus NX200t.

Applications: Lexus NX 200t AGZ10/15 Production

In Japan built by Toyota Motor Corporation in Kamigo Plant and by Toyota Industries Corporation Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama, Inc. (TMMAL) will start building the AR 2.5L and 2.7L engines beginning in mid-2011.

GAC Toyota Engine Co.,Ltd Guangqi, China, announced start of AR 2.5L and 2.7L engine production November 2011

Toyota Australia officially opened its new engine plant producing both petrol and hybrid engine variants in Melbourne. See also List of Toyota engines List of Toyota transmissions
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