Carriglea Park and Sperm sortingCarriglea Park was an industrial school in Dún Laoghaire, Ireland. The Christian Brothers purchased the property in 1893. It was first certified as an Industrial School in 1894 and started operating in 1896. It was located in Kill O'The Grange in south County Dublin, at the junction of Kill Avenue and Rochestown Avenue. The site is now the location of the Quadrangle Building in Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology, a third level institute of technology with over 2000 students.Contents 1 History 1.1 Closure 2 Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse 2.1 Physical abuse 2.2 Sexual abuse 2.3 Emotional abuse and neglect 2.4 Education and trades 2.5 General conclusions 3 ReferencesHistoryThe property originally consisted of the 'Ruby Hall' mansion and 40 acres of land, which was increased to 60 acres (240,000 m2) by the purchase of a nearby farm. In 1946 purchase of land intended for a secondary school increased the size of the property to 115 acres (0.47 km2).The idea behind establishing Carriglea was that it would be "Artane on a small scale".The mansion was used as residence for the Christian Brothers and a separate building was built for the dormitory, dining room, kitchen and classrooms. ClosureThe school officially closed on 30 June 1954.When the Congregation decided to close Carriglea Park, it decided that admissions to St Joseph's Industrial School, Letterfrack would be restricted to those boys whose offences would have resulted in a prison sentence for an adult. This was strongly opposed by the Department of Education and Skills, Department of Justice and members of the judiciary, but the Brothers were adamant and went ahead with the plan.The Dún Laoghaire College of Art and Design moved to the site in the early 1980s, expanding into the Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) in 1997 with several more buildings constructed over the years. Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Physical abuse See also: Physical abuseThe Commission concluded that when discipline had broken down, the Congregation approved the appointment of a man known to practice excessive corporal punishment and that they considered this an appropriate approach. Sexual abuse See also: Child sexual abuse and Sexual abuseThe Commission concluded that there was a problem with abuse of boys by other boys. They noted that a Brother had been transferred from Artane Industrial school to Carriglea after concerns had been expressed about his friendship with a particular boy in Artane - this was condemned as "ill-judged and dangerous".Two specific Brothers were noted as having histories of abuse - they were given the pseudonyms Brother Tristan and Brother Lancelin.Brother Tristan was probably known to be an abuser by the General Council, but was moved on and kept employed in the insdustrial school system. He had committed offences at Carriglea and Marino. The Commission found that the records of the General Council showed that they regarded his offences as being much more serious than the submission to the Commission by the Christian Brothers had indicated.Brother Lancelins offences were serious enough to be described with language that would be used of criminal offences, contradicting the submission made by the Congregation to the Commission. The Commission described one offence in particular as a "serious case of sexual abuse". Unusually for the 1940s, the boys made written statements about the abuse. Emotional abuse and neglect See also: Emotional abuse and NeglectCarriglea Park was "dilapidated and run-down" for most of the period of the Commissions remit.Boys were badly clothed and went barefoot in summer despite adequate funds being available. Education and tradesPrimary school education at Carriglea appears to have been of a relatively high standard.The Commission praised the practice of preparing boys for the Postal Office exam, but regretted that the practice of sending brighter boys to the Christian Brothers secondary school in Dun Laoghaire was discontinued.Trades were for the benefit of the institution, not the boys and only two were offered apart from farming.Boys in Carriglea were not provided with work skills for after their time in the school. General conclusionsThe Congregation had adequate funds to provide reasonable care for the boys sent to Carriglea, but didn't do so. The Congregation made considerable profit from closing Carriglea Park but did not use it to benefit boys.Chronic mismanagement and a harsh regieme caused abuse.Discipline was enforced by harsh and violent means to introduce order, with no regard for the boys welfare.Sexual abuse by two Brothers was noted.Primary education was good, but trades preparation was poor.The school was dilapidated and poorly run.
Sperm sorting and Carriglea ParkSperm sorting is a means of choosing what type of sperm cell is to fertilize the egg cell. It can be used to sort out sperm that are most healthy, as well as determination of more specific traits, such as sex selection in which spermatozoa are separated into X- (female) and Y- (male) chromosome bearing populations based on their difference in DNA content. The resultant 'sex-sorted' spermatozoa are then able to be used in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination or in-vitro fertilization (IVF) to produce offspring of the desired sex.Contents 1 For general health 2 For sex selection 2.1 Methods 2.2 Accuracy 2.3 Ethical concerns 2.4 Regulation 3 See also 4 ReferencesFor general healthDNA damage in sperm cells may be detected by using Raman spectroscopy. It is not specific enough to detect individual traits, however.The sperm cells having least DNA damage may subsequently be injected into the egg cell by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For sex selection MethodsSperm sorting utilizes the technique of flow cytometry to analyze and 'sort' spermatozoa. During the early to mid-1980s, Dr. Glenn Spaulding was the first to sort viable whole human and animal spermatozoa using a flow cytometer, and utilized the sorted motile rabbit sperm for artificial insemination. Subsequently, the first patent application disclosing the method to sort "two viable subpopulations enriched for x- or y- sperm" was filed in April 1987 as US Application Serial Number 35,986 and later became part of US Patent 5,021,244; and the patent included the discovery of haploid expression (sex-associated membrane proteins, or SAM proteins) and the development of monoclonal antibodies to those proteins. Additional applications and methods were added, including antibodies, from 1987 through 1997. At the time of the patent filing, both Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories and the USDA were only sorting fixed sperm nuclei, after the Application Serial Number 35,986 patent filing a new technique was utilized by the USDA where "sperm were briefly sonicated to remove tails". USDA in conjunction with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, 'Beltsfield Sperm Sexing Technology' relies on the DNA difference between the X- and Y- chromosomes. Prior to flow cytometric sorting, semen is labeled with a fluorescent dye called Hoechst 33342 which binds to the DNA of each spermatozoon. As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will absorb a greater amount of dye than its male (Y-chromosome bearing) counterpart. As a consequence, when exposed to UV light during flow cytometry, X spermatozoa fluoresce brighter than Y- spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single droplet of fluid and assigned an electric charge corresponding to its chromosome status (e.g. X-positive charge, Y-negative charge). The stream of X- and Y- droplets is then separated by means of electrostatic deflection and collected into separate collection tubes for subsequent processing. AccuracyWhile highly accurate, sperm sorting by flow cytometry will not produce two completely separate populations. That is to say, there will always be some "male" sperm among the "female" sperm and vice versa. The exact percentage purity of each population is dependent on the species being sorted and the 'gates' which the operator places around the total population visible to the machine. In general, the larger the DNA difference between the X and Y chromosome of a species, the easier it is to produce a highly pure population. In sheep and cattle, purities for each sex will usually remain above 90% depending on 'gating', while for humans these may be reduced to 90% and 70% for "female" and "male" spermatozoa, respectively. Ethical concerns Further information: Sex selection § Ethical concernsSperm sorting raises the ethical concerns implicit to the idea of sex selection. However, the fact that sperm sorting is in effect sex-preselection, with the sex of the offspring decided at conception rather than post-conception (preimplantation genetic diagnosis), post-implantation (ultrasound) or post-birth, makes the technique decidedly more attractive from an ethical standpoint. RegulationIn the US, for humans, the practice of sperm sorting is tightly regulated by the FDA. In effect, it remains an ongoing clinical trial, with the procedure made available to a limited number of participants each month, in addition to fulfilling certain criteria, such as having a disease with sex linkage or having at least one child (for family balancing). See also Sex selection
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