Paul Brigham and Burghölzli

Paul Brigham (January 6, 1746 – June 15, 1824) was an American Revolutionary soldier and Democratic-Republican politician and the first Lieutenant Governor and the second Governor of the state of Vermont.

Contents 1 Biography 2 Career 3 Death and legacy 4 References 5 External links


Brigham, son of Paul and Catherine (Turner) Brigham, was born January 6, 1746 in Coventry, Tolland County, Connecticut. He married Lydia Sawyer (of Hebron, Connecticut) on October 3, 1767, and the couple had five children. Career

Brigham served from January 1, 1777 to April 22, 1781, as a Captain in the Connecticut Militia during the American Revolutionary War. He was a Company Commander of Continental troops under the command of General George Washington and wintered in Valley Forge during the winter of 1777.

In the spring of 1782 Brigham and his family moved to Norwich, Vermont, where he was a farmer and a land speculator. He served as High Sheriff of Windsor County, Vermont, for five years and as Major General of the Vermont Militia. He was chief judge of the county court for five years, and was a presidential elector for Vermont in 1792. He was on the Governor's Council from 1792 to 1796.

Brigham was elected lieutenant governor of Vermont from 1796 to 1813 and again from 1815 until 1820. Upon the resignation and death of Governor Thomas Chittenden, he served for a short time as the second Governor of Vermont from August 25 to October 16, 1797, when the new Governor, Isaac Tichenor, was sworn in. Brigham then resumed his duties as Lieutenant Governor. He retired and returned to his home in Norwich in 1820. Death and legacy

Brigham died in Norwich on June 16, 1824, is interred at Fairview Cemetery, in his home town of Norwich, Vermont. The journal of his army experiences was published as "A Revolutionary Diary of Captain Paul Brigham, November 19, 1777-September 4, 1778."

The obituary from the New-Hampshire Patriot (NH), July 12, 1824, p. 3, reads: "In Norwich, Vt. on the 15th ult. PAUL BRIGHAM, in the 79th year of his age. Extensively known, eulogy would add nothing to the right which the virtuous actions of a good man justly claim for the deceased. For four years he served as a Captain in the war for Independence; five years was the High Sheriff of Windsor county; a Major General of Militia; five years Chief Judge of the County Court; and 22 of 24 succeeding years Lieutenant Governor of this State. In all these offices he sustained the reputation of discharging their several duties to the satisfaction of his fellow citizens; and received their almost unanimous suffrages for the latter, until admonished by the infirmities of age, that retirement was necessary, he declined any further public service. Vt. Journal."

Burghölzli and Paul Brigham


Burghölzli is the common name given for the psychiatric hospital of the University of Zürich, Switzerland. The hospital is located on "Burghölzli", a wooded hill in the district of Riesbach of southeastern Zürich.

The former convent buildings of Predigerkirche Zürich were also used after the abolition of the monastery by the hospital. After the construction of the new hospital in 1842, they became the so-called "Versorgungsanstalt" where chronically ill, old, incurable mental patients were housed; the contemporaries complained unsustainable states that were solved in 1870, when the Burghölzli sanatory was built

The history of the hospital began in the early 1860s, when internist Wilhelm Griesinger at the University of Zurich made plans for the creation of a modern psychiatric clinic for humane treatment of the mentally ill. Although Griesinger died before the building was established in 1870, he is considered the founder of Burghölzli. From 1870 until 1879, the hospital had three directors, Bernhard von Gudden, Gustav Huguenin and Eduard Hitzig. All three men practiced medicine from a biological basis, with brain pathology and physiology being the general focus of their research.

Auguste-Henri Forel was the fourth director of Burghölzli, and spent nearly twenty years at the helm. Under his leadership, the hospital began to gain recognition throughout the medical world. Forel was able to combine the "dynamic approach" of French psychiatry with the biological orientation of the German school of psychiatric thought. In 1898 Eugen Bleuler became director of the Burghölzli, where he would remain until 1927. The "Bleuler era" is considered the most illustrious period at the hospital, largely due to the advent of psychoanalysis, usage of Freudian psychiatric theories, and the creative work of Bleuler's assistant, Carl Gustav Jung. Bleuler was followed as director by Hans-Wolfgang Maier and afterwards by his son Manfred Bleuler.

In addition to Jung, many renowned psychiatrists spent part of their career at the Burghölzli, including Karl Abraham, Ludwig Binswanger, Eugène Minkowski, Hermann Rorschach, Franz Riklin, Constantin von Monakow, Adolf Meyer, Abraham Brill and Emil Oberholzer. Albert Einstein's son, Eduard Einstein was a patient at Burghölzli. Today the Burghölzli is an important center for psychiatric research and the treatment of mental illness.
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